On Monday, May 18 2020, 16:00 - 17:30, Maryna Ivets (CINCH) will present:
The Effect of Early Child Care on Children's Non-cognitive Development: Evidence from Germany
In this paper I explore the early child care (ECC) reform in Germany that substantially expanded supply of places to children under the age of three. I investigate the effect of early child care expansion on children's non-cognitive development in the short and medium run. I use data from the German Survey of Youth and Adolescents (KiGGS) and find evidence of some negative short-term effect for the cohorts of children with increased universal early childcare access, especially pronounced in boys. However, when these kids reach primary-school ages I find no evidence of effect, thus indicating that the initial negative effect is not persistent in the medium term.
Room: Due to the current situation regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, the talk will be held in a virtual seminar room. For more information click here.
Abstract: The incidence of adiposity in the early years of life has outgrown the prevalence rate in older children and adolescents globally; however, the relationships between unemployment and weight are predominantly studied in adults. This study examines the relationship between changing economic conditions during the Irish recession and child weight. Fixed effect logistic regression is used to examine the effects of parental unemployment on weight using the Growing up in Ireland infant cohort from 2008 to 2013. This study is the first to use longitudinal anthropometric measurements to estimate the impact of parental unemployment on children’s weight before, during and after a recession. Child growth charts are used to quantify children according to overweight for BMI, weight for age, and weight for height measures. For BMI, the probability of a child being overweight is 6 percentage points higher if either parent has experienced unemployment. For weight for age the probability is of similar magnitude across several alternative growth charts and definitions of adiposity. The analysis is repeated, cross-sectionally, for physical activity and diet to clarify mechanisms of effect. The probability of a child consuming healthy food and physical activity with an implied cost is lower if either parent becomes unemployed. A focus on excess adiposity in the early years is of crucial importance as if current trends are not addressed a generation of children may grow up with a higher level of chronic disease.
On Monday, May 11 2020, 8:00 - 9:30, Johannes Kunz (Monash University) will present:
Predicting Fixed Effects: Assessing the Quality of Public Services: Does Hospital Competition Crowd-out the For-profit Quality Gap?
We examine variation in hospital quality across ownership, market concentration and membership of a hospital system. We use a measure of quality derived from the penalties imposed on hospitals under the flagship Hospital Readmission Reduction Program. We employ a novel estimation approach that extracts latent hospital quality from panel data on penalties and addresses the problem of non-penalized hospitals in short panels. Our quality measure correlates strongly across penalized conditions and with other non-incentivized quality metrics. We document a robust and sizable for-profit quality gap, which is largely crowded-out by competition between hospital chains, particularly for high-quality hospitals.
Room: Due to the current situation regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, the talk will be held in a virtual seminar room. Please note that the talk will be held in the morning due to the difference in time zones. For more information click here.